Donnerstag, 29 Juni 2017 15:59

FERGUSSON, R. A. (2010)

Nile Crocodile - Crocodylus niloticus.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 84-89.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.

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More than 750 surveys using a variety of methods have been carried out for C. niloticus since the 1950s. Despite covering 315 different locations only  8  of  these  have  been  surveyed  enough  to  allow estimation of population trends. All of these are located in southern and East Africa where there have been significant recent improvements in monitoring. In central and West Africa the availability of survey data is very poor. Overall, survey data are insufficient or non-existent in 25 of 42 Range States. The need for wild population recovery and/or conservation is moderate throughout much of east and southern Africa with recent  detailed  studies suggesting an urgent need for conservation action in specific areas, but is high in central and West Africa. Many populations are believed  to  have  recovered by the 1990s but are now constrained or in decline due to anthropogenic factors.

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Mittwoch, 28 Juni 2017 14:00

THORBJARNARSON, J.B. (2010)

American Crocodile - Crocodylus acutus.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 46-52.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin

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The American crocodile is the most widely distributed of the New World crocodiles, ranging from the southern tip of Florida, along both the Atlantic and Pacifi c coasts of southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America, as well
as the Caribbean islands of Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola. The habitat of C.  acutus consists largely of brackish water coastal habitats such as the saltwater sections of rivers, coastal lagoons, and mangrove swamps. However, populations are
known from freshwater areas located well inland, including a number of reservoirs. A signifi cant population is known from Lago Enriquillo, a landlocked hypersaline lake situated 40 m below sea level in the arid southwestern Dominican Republic.

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Mittwoch, 28 Juni 2017 08:43

COX, J. H. (2010)

New Guinea Freshwater Crocodile - Crocodylus novaeguineae.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 71-78.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.

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In Papua New Guinea, recognition of unregulated hunting taking  place  led  the  Department  of  Environment  and Conservation (DEC) to: introduce legislative controls in the late 1960s; and, and establish a regulated program in the 1970s based on cropping and ranching. Crocodiles are managed at sustainable levels for the benefi t of customary landowners who own most of the land in Papua New Guinea. Crocodiles can  be  legally  harvested  by  landowners  for  personal use (food and ritual), but commercial sale and export of hides is restricted to the size range of 18-51 cm belly width, which corresponds to approximately 0.9-2.1 m total length.

Wild harvests declined from over 20,000/year in 1977-1980 to 12,000-20,000/year in 1981-1989, then fl uctuated between 10,000-20,000/year  (1997-2005)  (Solmu  and  Sine  2009). Until  the  mid-1990s  hatchlings  and  eggs  were  collected and raised in centralized ranches. Harvests for this purpose ranged  from  2500  to  10,000.  Early  attempts  to  establish village level ranches fl oundered due to technical limitations, particularly feed (locally caught fi sh), water and management defi ciencies. Trade in live juveniles and eggs to centralized raising facilities continued until 1995 when the largest farm halted purchases of the species due to market prospects and its Saltwater crocodile-oriented management strategy.

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Morelet’s Crocodile - Crocodylus moreletii.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 79-83.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin

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Morelet’s crocodile is a medium-sized species (males to 4.5 m) occurring in the Atlantic lowlands of the Gulf of Mexico (Mexico) and the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico, Belize and Guatemala). Knowledge of this species has increased rapidly over the past two decades, and recently a great deal of research has been conducted on its distribution and status in Mexico and Belize, nesting ecology, diet and foraging ecology, morphometrics, population ecology and ecotoxicology.

 

platt-biblio

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Mittwoch, 28 Juni 2017 07:39

VAN WEERD, M. (2010)

Philippine Crocodile - Crocodylus mindorensis.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 71-78.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin

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The  Philippine  crocodile  is a relatively  small  freshwater crocodile. Although much is still unknown, studies at two captive  breeding  facilities [Palawan  Wildlife  Rescue  and Conservation  Centre (PWRCC), Palawan  Island and Silliman University, Negros Island and in the wild in northern Luzon and the University of Southern Mindanao, central Mindanao, on Ligawasan Marsh, have now yielded much more information on the ecology of this rare species.

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Mittwoch, 28 Juni 2017 06:57

WEBB, G. J. W. & MANOLIS, S. C. (2010)

Australian Freshwater Crocodile - Crocodylus johnstoni.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 66-70.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.

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The Australian Freshwater Crocodile was formally described as Crocodylus johnsoni intended to name the species after Mr. Robert Johnstone, but mispelt the name as “Johnson”. Cogger et  al. (1983) reviewed the nomenclature and reinstated the name Crocodylus johnstoni, which is the name most commonly applied in the scientific and general literature, and in Australian State/Territory and Federal legislation. This correction was unnoticed by some (King  and  Burke 1989), so “Crocodylus johnsoni” still appears in some contexts (CITES and IUCN).

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Dienstag, 27 Juni 2017 10:43

STEVENSON, C. & WHITAKER, R. (2010)

Gharial - Gavialis gangeticus.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 139-143.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.

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Historically, G. gangeticus was found in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, in the Indus (Pakistan), Ganges (India and Nepal), Mahanadi (India) and Brahmaputra (Bangladesh, India and Bhutan) River systems. The presence of the species in the Irrawaddy River system in Myanmar has also been reported. The Gharial is typically a resident of fl owing rivers with deep pools that have high sand banks and good fi sh stocks. Exposed sand banks are used for nesting. Although the function of the ‘ghara’ is not well understood, it is apparently used as a visual sex indicator, as a sound resonator, or for bubbling or other associated sexual behaviours.

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Dienstag, 27 Juni 2017 08:18

SHIRLEY, M. H. (2010)

Slender-snouted Crocodile - Crocodylus cataphractus.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 54-58.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.

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Historically, C. cataphractus was widely distributed throughout West and Central Africa, but recent surveys suggest that its distribution has changed as a result of local extirpations. While relatively little is known about the ecology of the species, it appears to prefer forested rivers and other densely vegetated bodies of water (i.e. reservoirs and freshwater lagoons), but has also been found in sparsely vegetated, gallery habitats within savannah woodland.

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Dienstag, 27 Juni 2017 07:45

SIMPSON, B.K. & BEZUIJEN, M.R. (2010).

Siamese Crocodile - Crocodylus siamensis.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 120-126.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.

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Crocodylus siamensis is one of the world’s most endangered crocodilians. In 1992 it was reported as virtually extinct in the wild and in 1996 it was accorded IUCN Red List status of ‘Critically Endangered’. Since 1996, new  status  assessments have resulted in the discovery of wild populations and information on its global distribution and ecology, although it remains one of the least known of crocodilians.The Siamese crocodile occurs in a wide range of freshwater habitats, including slow-moving rivers and streams, lakes, seasonal oxbow lakes, marshes and swamplands. During the wet season, individuals disperse across fl ooded landscapes. The use of burrows excavated into the banks of rivers or lakes has been reported, with up to fi ve individuals utilizing a single burrow at one time. Generally preferring lowland elevations, the species has been recorded up to 600 m.

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Cuban Crocodile - Crocodylus rhombifer.

In: Crocodiles.Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: 114-118.
Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.

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The Cuban crocodile has the smallest known distribution of any extant crocodilian, and is currently restricted to Zapata Swamp  (mainland  Cuba) and Lanier Swamp (Isla de la Juventud). In the recent past the species was more widely distributed on the main island of Cuba. Skeletal material shows that this species was present on the Cayman Islands. The Cuban crocodile population of Zapata Swamp is restricted to a small area of approximately 300 km², on the southwestern portion of the peninsula, where the species is sympatric with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Lanier Swamp is a small wetland of approximately 100 km², situated on a west-east axis, across the central portion of Isla de la Juventud. Several hundred C. rhombifer have been released in Lanier Swamp since 1994, as part of an ongoing restocking program.

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