SCLATER, P. L. & OLDFIELD, T. (1894-1900)
The Book of Antelopes.
4 Bände, zusammen mit 100 handgefärbten Litho-Tafeln von Joseph WOLF und Illustrationen im Text.
Verlag R. H. Porter, London.
- Band I Bubalidinae, Cephalophinae
- Band II: Neotraginae, Cervicaprinae
- Band III: Antilopinae
- Band IV: Hippotraginae, Tragelaphinae
Als PDFs verfügbar durch die Universitätsbibliothek Bergen unter https://digitalt.uib.no/handle/1956.2/2891
COTTERILL, F. P. D. (2003)
Insights into the taxonomy of tsessebe antelopes, Damaliscus lunatus (Bovidae: Alcelaphini) in south-central Africa: with the description of a new evolutionary species.
Durban Museum Novitates 28: 11-30.
This paper reviews the taxonomy of selected African alcelaphine antelopes affiliated with Damaliscus lunatus, with a focus on the tsessebes D. l. lunatus, of south-central Africa and east African nyamera D. l. jimela. Of a total of 244 specimens examined, morphological variation of 219 specimens of Damaliscus from south-central and east Africa was analysed; these represent populations in northeastern Botswana, Zimbabwe, northeast Zambia and east Africa (Kenya and Tanzania). Multivariate statistical analyses of skull measurements were complemented by comparisons of pelage colouration. These character analyses discerned two populational lineages of tsessebes. These being D. lunatus (central Zimbabwe, Botswana and southern Africa), and the Bangweulu tsessebe in northeast Zambia. The latter is described as a new evolutionary species, D. superstes. This provisional analysis of the diversity of Damaliscus unequivocally distinguished two clades - the lunatus complex (comprising all south-central African tsessebes) from the korrigum complex (populations in east, west, and north Africa). These insights into morphological diversity of Damaliscus clearly endorses a revision for the genus, as errors weaken the time-honoured taxonomy. It is argued that the Evolutionary Species Concept (ESC) is superior to the Biological Species Concept (BSC) in characterizing the diversity of these antelopes precisely and accurately. A revised taxonomy has significant implications for the management of these antelopes.
WILDLIFE INSTITUTE OF INDIA (2018)
National Studbook Four Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis).
Hrsg.: Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.TR.No2018/02.
Conclusions and Recommendations:
Four horned antelopes continue to face threats to their longterm survival in their natural habitats across their distribution range and are accordingly listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and in the Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of India. The threats faced by the species remain operational and the populations across their range are showing declining trend. Maintenance of demographically stable and genetically viable ex-situ populations is thus crucial for ensuring the continued survival of the species. The captive population in Indian zoos is characterized by a declining trend (λ = 0.0676). The population remains biased towards females with a limited number of proven breeders, though a large proportion belong to reproductively active age classes. It retains approximately 93% genetic diversity introduced by 16 founders. Values of population mean inbreeding and mean kinship indicate that specimens are unrelated to each other; however, the founder genome is poorly represented with the population containing genetic diversity of approximately only 8founder animals. Population simulations run using PMx software indicate that supplementation with one effective founder every two years and increasing the population growth rate to 1.0252and population size to 200 specimens in Indian institutions can ensure that the population remains viable over the next 100 years. The captive population of Four horned antelope in Indian zoos therefore requires intensive management efforts towards ensuring achievement of ex-situ conservation goals to address the following concerns:
- Additional housing facilities are requiredto ensure availability of adequate space for holding the additional number of specimens needed for maintaining a genetically viable and demographically stable population.
- The wild origin specimens that are currently present in the population should be assessed for relatedness using appropriate molecular genetics tools. The assessment so carried out should form the basis for deciding mate choice.
- Issues that limit optimum reproductive performance of the captive population viz. housing and husbandry practices and keeping of unpaired animals need to be addressed for ensuring effective population growth.
CASTELLÓ, J. R. (2016)
Bovids of the World Antelopes, Gazelles, Cattle, Goats, Sheep, and Relatives.
Foreword by Brent Huffman & Colin Groves.
664 Seiten, 337 farbige Abbildungen, 313 Verbreitungskarten.
Princeton Press. ISBN-13: 9781400880652
Bovids are a diverse group of ruminant mammals that have hooves and unbranched hollow horns. Bovids of the World is the first comprehensive field guide to cover all 279 bovid species, including antelopes, gazelles, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats. From the hartebeest of Africa and the takin of Asia to the muskox of North America, bovids are among the world's most spectacular animals and this stunningly illustrated and easy-to-use field guide is an ideal way to learn more about them.
The guide covers all species and subspecies of bovids described to date. It features more than 300 superb full-color plates depicting every kind of bovid, as well as detailed facing-page species accounts that describe key identification features, horn morphology, distribution, subspeciation, habitat, and conservation status in the wild. This book also shows where to observe each species and includes helpful distribution maps.
Suitable for anyone with an interest in natural history, Bovids of the World is a remarkable and attractive reference, showcasing the range and beauty of these important mammals.
- The first comprehensive field guide to all 279 bovid species
- 337 full-color plates, with more than 1,500 photographs
- Detailed species accounts describe key identification features, distribution, subspeciation, habitat, behavior, reproduction, and conservation status
- Fully updated and revised taxonomy, with common and scientific names
- Easy-to-read distribution maps
BANNIKOV, A.G. (1963)
143 Seiten, 54 Abbildungen. Umfangreiches Literaturverzeichnis. Ins Deutsche übertragen von Dipl. Biol. Renate Angermann.
Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei Bd. 320. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg-Lutherstadt.
2004 erschien eine 2. unveränderte Auflage bei Westarp-Wiss, Hohenwarsleben. ISBN-10: 3-89432-735-9; ISBN-13: 978-3-89432-735-4.
Die Saiga-Antilope (Saiga tatarica), die in früherer Zeit die gesamte Steppenzone Europas besiedelte, ist heute auf ein Areal beschränkt, das von den Kalmücken- und Kirgisensteppen bis zur Mongolei reicht. Vor Jahrhunderten waren die Saigas in unübersehbaren Herden verbreitet. Durch rücksichtslose unkontrollierte Bejagung waren sie jedoch bis zum Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts in ihrem Bestand derartig zurückgegangen, daß intensive Schutzmaßnahmen ergriffen werden mußten. In einer langen Einzelentwicklung haben sich typische Merkmale herausgebildet, die eine weitgehende Anpassung dieser ausgesprochenen Schnelläufer, die sich in großen Herden fortbewegen, an das Leben in Steppen und Staubhalbwüsten darstellen. Gegenüber anderen Hornträgern ist eine Abänderung der Anatomie des Kopfskeletts eingetreten. Der Nasenvorhof hat sich zu einem beweglichen Rüssel entwickelt, der den Atemwegen als Staubschutz vorgelagert ist. In weiten jahreszeitlichen Wanderungen sucht die Saiga die klimatisch am günstigsten beeinflußten Lebensbedingungen zu nutzen. Strenge Winter mit Schneestürmen und lange anhaltender verharschter Schneedecke haben oft ein Massensterben der Saiga-Antilope zur Folge. Doch durch verschiedene Faktoren, die als Anpassung an solche Katastrophen angesellen werden können, ergänzen sich die Bestände in kurzer Zeit wieder. In der Gegenwart stellen die Saiga-Herden, die durch die staatlich gelenkte Jagdwirtschaft und Hege wieder erheblich zugenommen haben, einen bedeutenden Wirtschaftsfaktor dar.
JANSEN VAN VUUREN, B., ROBINSON, T.J., VAZPINTO, P., ESTES, R., MATTHEE, C.A. (2010)
Western Zambian sable: Are they a geographic extension of the giant sable antelope?
South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 40 (1): 35-42.
Over recent years many studies have looked at the effects that translocations have on the conservation of evolutionary patterns within game species. One of the most valuable game ranch species in South Africa is the sable antelope (Hippotragus niger). Four subspecies of this species are recognised based on morphological characteristics; these include the Roosevelt (Hippotragus niger roosevelti, and Kirk's sable (Hippotragus niger kirkii) in East Africa, the southern sable (Hippotragus niger niger) found from south-western Tanzania southwards including in South Africa, and the giant sable (Hippotragus niger variani) which occurs in Angola.
One subspecies whose survival is of great concern is giant sable. Years of civil unrest in Angola, and being limited to a small area and interbreeding with its congener the roan antelope, has lead to the giant sable being listed as critically endangered by the IUCN. Originally known to occur only in the central part of Angola, sightings of antelopes that superficially resemble the giant sable antelope have been reported in the eastern areas of Western Zambia. The antelopes sighted resembled the giant sable antelope in phenotype, most notably the distinct facial markings and coat colour. These reports prompted speculation in the popular media that the distribution area of the giant sable may be larger than is reflected in the scientific literature, a view that could have a serious impact on current conservation efforts to protect the giant sable antelope.
The recent study by Jansen van Vuuren and colleagues compared the genetic profiles from representative specimens from all four subspecies (including animals from western Zambia) to determine the evolutionary placement of western Zambian sable within Hippotragus niger niger or Hippotragus niger variani based on genetic characters rather than just morphological characteristics.
Their results confirmed previous reports that indicate significant separation of genetic variation (differences at genetic level) in sable antelope subspecies across their pan-African distribution. In addition, although the western Zambian and giant sable antelope resemble one another in morphology, particularly with respect to facial markings, significant genetic differences underpin these two evolutionary lineages with the western Zambian sable falling within the southern sable subspecies (Hippotragus niger niger).
These results indicate substantial phenotypic plasticity (the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment) in the characters that are conventionally used to distinguish the giant sable antelope from other sable subspecies. Consequently, neither horn length nor facial markings of the giant sable antelope should be driving conservation concerns, but rather its unique evolutionary history. The findings from this study underscore the need for rethinking decision making in conservation efforts to ensure the survival of the giant sable in Angola.
PAPPAS, L. (2002)
MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 689, pp. 1–5, 3 figs.
Published 5 July 2002 by the American Society of Mammalogists
STECK, B. (2018)
Lesser Kudu Tragelaphus imberbis (Blyth, 1869) European Studboook 2017.
70 Seiten, Grafiken
Published by Zoo Basel, Switzerland.
I would like to thank all ESB members that keep lesser kudus for their cooperation and help to update the European studbook 2017. All the data of the annual reports returned by 17 January 2018 were included in this edition. All ESB members provided their data.
This studbook lists a total of 497.538.15 (1050) lesser kudus. On 31 December 2017, the European studbook records 71 (22.49) lesser kudus kept in 11 EAZA institutions.
A genetic and demographic analysis was performed.
The first lesser kudu listed in the studbook were a pair caught in Ethiopia and taken to the Zoo Zürich in 1931. According to an e-mail from Michael Mettler, Langenhagen, Germany, more lesser kudus were kept before and during that time, for example in the zoos of Hannover and Berlin. However, very little information is available with regard to their origin and breeding history. The studbook keeper would be grateful to receive more information on lesser kudus kept in the early 20th century.
More than twenty years later, Tierpark Hellabrunn, Munich, received two wild caught females in 1955 and a male in 1958. The origin of these animals is unknown, given as “East Africa”. During that time, another pair was caught in Somalia and taken to Zoo Zürich in 1956. Also in 1956, Basel zoo received two pairs from a Swiss, living in Africa. The first birth in captivity was on 23 January 1959 in Munich, followed by another birth on 1 August 1959 at Basel zoo. Only few zoos in Europe have held this species.
The current population descends from 24 founders and has no potential founders. Founder 11 was caught in East Africa and no further information on the capture site can be obtained. He arrived in Hannover on 5 May 1960. The capture location for founder 26 is given as Nairobi and it came to Basel on 28 October 1971. In 1972, Dvur Kralove imported 3.14 lesser kudu from Mbalambala, Garrisa District, Kenya. From these animals, the following six founders, i.e. 100, 101, 102, 103, 104 and 106, have living descendants in the ESB. Apart from founder 11, all these animals seem to be Tragelaphus imberbis imberbis. Founder 11 cannot be assigned to any subspecies because its capture site is unknown and no genetic material remains that could be tested. In addition, three wild caught animals were caught in East Africa and moved to Munich in 1955 and 1958. They had one surviving offspring (stb. no. 13), which was moved to Basel for breeding. Again, it is not known to which subspecies stb. 13 or its parents belong.
(Equally in 1958, Dresden Zoo received a wild caught male from the dealer Demmer. It is not known where this animal was caught and it had no surviving offspring. In 1961, Hannover zoo imported a wild caught male from Tanzania and from 1961 to 1967 further 1.4 wild caught individuals from Kenya.
In 1966, Pretoria received two wild caught females from Ghiazza, unfortunately, nothing is known about their capture location.
In 1975, Hannover Zoo bought a pair from the animal dealer Demmer. Many thanks are due to Michael Mettler from Langenhagen, Germany, who pointed out in an e-mail dated 28 March 2017 that information on the origin of these animals could be found in the 1975 annual report of Hannover Zoo. In there, it says that Hannover was able to obtain a young pair from Mr. von Nagy’s private zoo, Usa river, near Arusha, Tanzania. These two animals were bred there and their parents are thus considered to be two or three new founders.
In 1984, Stuttgart purchased a female from Soest. Once more, nothing is known of its origin, so it could be a new founder or offspring from the studbook population. Since animals were given to Van den Brink in the past, it is assumed to be an offspring from the studbook population. The six founders imported in the 1960s to Hannover have no descendants in the current studbook population, all offspring died or were given to dealer Van den Brink and are lost to follow-up. According to Van den Brink (pers. com., 23.7.2011), they were most likely given to either Seoul zoo, to Japan or to Algeria (Zoo Ben Agnoon in Algier), in which case they or their offspring are probably not represented in the ESB.
Similarly, the two founders in Pretoria had just one young, which left no descendants and are thus not represented in the current studbook population. All the animals within brackets are either founders with no living offspring in the current studbook population or are animals of unknown origin, i.e. it is not known whether they are new founders or individuals with unknown parents from the studbook population).
Five more founders, i.e. 5000, 5001, 5002, 5003 and 5004, were caught in Somalia in 2005 and taken to Maktoum. Eight more founders, i.e. 5005 – 5012, were caught one year later in Somalia and also transferred to Maktoum. All these 13 founders from Somalia are from a person in Sharjah S. (or Samra) and were identified as belonging to Tragelaphus imberbis imberbis. However, with Maktoum leaving EAZA in 2015, these animals no longer belong to the ESB.
In 2015, three males from the US population were imported to Basel from San Diego Zoo and Kansas City Zoo. Their pedigrees are not fully known but do include new founders for the ESB. Two of them were moved to Dvur Kralove and Stuttgart.
In 2016, two males were exported from Beauval to a sanctuary in Djibouti that keeps a pair. It is hoped that in future, offspring from that pair can in return be imported to Europe and add new blood to the narrow genetic founder base.
ALPERS, D.L., VAN VUUREN, B.J., ARCTANDER, P. & ROBINSON, T.J. (2004)
Population genetics of the roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus ) with suggestions for conservation.
Mol Ecol. 2004 Jul;13(7):1771-84.
The roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) is the second largest African antelope, distributed throughout the continent in sub-Saharan savannah habitat. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequencing (401 bp, n = 137) and microsatellite genotyping (eight loci, n = 137) were used to quantify the genetic variability within and among 18 populations of this species. The within-population diversity was low to moderate with an average mtDNA nucleotide diversity of 1.9% and average expected heterozygosity with the microsatellites of 46%, but significant differences were found among populations with both the mtDNA and microsatellite data. Different levels of genetic resolution were found using the two marker sets, but both lent strong support for the separation of West African populations (samples from Benin, Senegal and Ghana) from the remainder of the populations studied across the African continent. Mismatch distribution analyses revealed possible past refugia for roan in the west and east of Africa. The West African populations could be recognized together as an evolutionarily significant unit (ESU), referable to the subspecies H. e. koba. Samples from the rest of the continent constituted a geographically more diverse assemblage with genetic associations not strictly corresponding to the other recognized subspecies.
EAST, R. (1988-1990)
Antelopes: Global Survey and Regional Action Plans.
Part 1: East and Northeast Africa (1988). 7 Kapitel, 5 Länder, 96 Seiten, mit Verbreitungskarten.ISBN 2-88032-942-6.
Part 2: Southern and South-Central Africa. 8 Kapitel, 6 Länder, 96 Seiten, mit Verbreitungskarten.ISBN 2-88032-970-1.
Part 3: West and Central Africa. 16 Kapitel, 14 Länder, 171 Seiten, mit Verbreitungskarten. ISBN 2-8317-0016-7.
IUCN-SSC Antelope Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland.