AZA Antelope Husbandry Manual - Cephalophinae.
San Diego Wild Animal Park
General Characteristics, Veterinary Care, Nutrition, Captive Management, Housing and Enclosure Requirements, Behavior and Social Organization, Reproduction and Ontogeny, Assisted Reproduction Techniques, Contraception, Hand Rearing, Role of Keeper in Animal Management, In Situ Programs, References, Acknowledgments, Bibliography
Flagship but only locally: bongo Tragelaphus eurycerus taxonomic history and its effects on current conservation policy.
GAZELLA 44: 65-76.
A review of historical literature plus the examination of zoos and museum specimens and available photos from internet source revealed the hidden diversity of the bongo antelopes, presently Tragelaphus eurycerus. While the Kenya montane form isaaci has received most conservation support in recent years, the present review highlights the species status of the little-known Upper Guinean nominal taxon. Waiting for a through taxonomic revision of the whole complex especially in the central forest block, the Central-Eastern bongos are better considered as members of a distinct species Tragelaphus albovirgatus Du Chaillu, 1861, provisionally considered to include a number of ‘subspecies’. The conservation status of T. albovirgatus and especially of T. eurycerus need further investigations even considering that, excepted for the Kenyan taxon isaaci, their survival may depends exclusively on in situ conservation activities.
Über die ersten Bongos in Paris.
BULETTE Berlin 7: 215-219.
Es wird über die Ersteinfuhr eines (Westlichen) Bongos in einen europäischen Zoologischen Garten berichtet, die 1927 durch die Menagerie des Jardin des Plantes, Paris, erfolgte. Ferner über die zweite Einfuhr eines Bongos nach Paris, der 1939 im Zoo de Vincennes gehalten wurde. Die Tiere werden fotografisch dokumentiert.
Evaluating the activity patterns and enclosure usage of a little-studied zoo species, the sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii).
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 1 (1):14-19.
Ungulates can be underrepresented in zoo animal behaviour and welfare research, yet they comprise some of the most widely-kept captive species and as such, their lives within the zoo are worthy of closer investigation. Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii) are kept in numerous zoological collections globally yet current information on species-specific husbandry requirements and captive behaviour patterns appears limited. Many enclosures for ungulates can be uninspiring and generic; this study was designed to gain a better understanding of daily activity and enclosure use of a species that, in the wild, has a very particular habitat choice. Data were collect-ed at the former Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, Chard, UK on eight sitatunga to determine overall daily activity patterns and usage of all available areas of their exhibit. Instantaneous scan sampling of the whole herd during three periods each day (morning, midday and afternoon) allowed for changes in behaviour patterns to be assessed over time. The enclosure encompassed both biologically-relevant (long grasses, reeds and shallow water) and less relevant (open, short-grassed) areas; these were zoned according to features considered useable to the sitatunga and that could influence behaviour and time spent within that zone. Zone usage was analysed using a modified Spread of Participation Index (SPI) which indicated a significant prefer-ence for biologically-relevant spaces. Significantly enhanced behavioural repertoires occurred in the “natural” zones of the enclosure and three behaviours (standing, sitting/ruminating and eating) showed significant differences in performance between natural and artificial zones, and between time of day. Captive sitatunga display a daily rhythm in their activity, however comparison with wild data in the literature shows only few similarities in daytime activity budget and analysis reveals a significant difference between daily feeding patterns. Overall, enclosure design based on facets of natural ecology is important for the expression of a “wild-type” behaviour pattern in captive ungulates and sitatunga will actively choose more biologically-relevant areas of their exhibit when these are available. It is suggested that alterations to husbandry regime and management style of such specialised ungulates could help improve captive behavioural repertoires and enhance the display of such animals in the zoo.
Reproductive biology of captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in Saudi Arabia.
Zoo Biology 15 (4): 371-381.
Reproductive data on captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were collected from June 1986 through April 1992 at the National Wildlife Research Center (Taif, Saudi Arabia). Oryx females are polyestrous. The estrous cycle averaged 22 days and mean gestation length was 260 ± 5.5 days (S.D). Sex ratio at birth was unbiased and mean weight was 6.5 ± 0.7 kg (S.D.), with no difference between sexes. Under captive breeding conditions, births occurred throughout the year. Females gave birth to a single calf at any time during the day and produced 1.03 young per year. Abortion rate was 3.6%. Mortality rate of young was 6.1% before weaning at 3 months of age. The interbirth interval averaged 295 ± 42 days (S.D.), with 53% lasting between 270 and 279 days. Females reached sexual maturity at the age of 13 months.
Antelope Conservation ä From Diadnosis to Action.
Conservation Science and Practice 16: 1-376.
Wiley Blackwell / Zoological Society of London. ISBN: 978-1-118-40957-2.
Antelopes constitute a fundamental part of ecosystems throughout Africa and Asia where they act as habitat architects, dispersers of seeds, and prey for large carnivores. The fascication they hold in the human mind is evident from prehistoric rock paintings and ancient Egyptian art to today's wildlife documentaries and popularity in zoos. In recent years, however, the spectacular herds of the past have been decimated or extripated over wide areas in the wilds, and urgent conservation action is needed to preserve this world heritage for generations to come.
As the first book dedicated to antelope conservation, this volume sets out to diagnose the causes of the drastic declines in antelope biodiversity and on this basis identify the most effective points of action. In doing so, the book covers central issues in the current conservation debate, especially related to the management of overexploitation, habitat fragmentation, disease transmission, climate change, populations genetics, and reintroductions. The contributions are authored by world-leading experts in the field, and the book is a useful resource to conservation scientists and practitioners, researchers, and students in related disciplines as well as interested lay people.
Das Buch umfasst folgende Kapitel:
Our Antelope Heritage – Why the Fuss? 1
- Conservation Challenges Facing African Savanna Ecosystems 11
- Population Regulation and Climate Change: The Future of Africa’s Antelope 32
- Interspecific Resource Competition in Antelopes: Search for Evidence 51
- Importance of Antelope Bushmeat Consumption in African Wet and Moist Tropical Forests 78
- Opportunities and Pitfalls in Realising the Potential Contribution of Trophy Hunting to Antelope Conservation 92
- Antelope Diseases – the Good, the Bad and the Ugly 108
- Hands-on Approaches to Managing Antelopes and their Ecosystems: A South African Perspective 137
- DNA in the Conservation and Management of African Antelope 162
- Biological Conservation Founded on Landscape Genetics: The Case of the Endangered Mountain Nyala in the Southern Highlands of Ethiopia 172
- The Use of Camera-Traps to Monitor Forest Antelope Species 190
- Reintroduction as an Antelope Conservation Solution 217
- Desert Antelopes on the Brink: How Resilient is the Sahelo-Saharan Ecosystem? 253
- The Fall and Rise of the Scimitar-Horned Oryx: A Case Study of Ex-Situ Conservation and Reintroduction in Practice 280
- Two Decades of Saiga Antelope Research: What have we Learnt? 297
- Synthesis: Antelope Conservation – Realising the Potential 315
Appendix: IUCN Red List Status of Antelope Species April 2016 329
The Book of Antelopes.
4 Bände, zusammen mit 100 handgefärbten Litho-Tafeln von Joseph WOLF und Illustrationen im Text.
Verlag R. H. Porter, London.
- Band I Bubalidinae, Cephalophinae
- Band II: Neotraginae, Cervicaprinae
- Band III: Antilopinae
- Band IV: Hippotraginae, Tragelaphinae
Als PDFs verfügbar durch die Universitätsbibliothek Bergen unter https://digitalt.uib.no/handle/1956.2/2891
Insights into the taxonomy of tsessebe antelopes, Damaliscus lunatus (Bovidae: Alcelaphini) in south-central Africa: with the description of a new evolutionary species.
Durban Museum Novitates 28: 11-30.
This paper reviews the taxonomy of selected African alcelaphine antelopes affiliated with Damaliscus lunatus, with a focus on the tsessebes D. l. lunatus, of south-central Africa and east African nyamera D. l. jimela. Of a total of 244 specimens examined, morphological variation of 219 specimens of Damaliscus from south-central and east Africa was analysed; these represent populations in northeastern Botswana, Zimbabwe, northeast Zambia and east Africa (Kenya and Tanzania). Multivariate statistical analyses of skull measurements were complemented by comparisons of pelage colouration. These character analyses discerned two populational lineages of tsessebes. These being D. lunatus (central Zimbabwe, Botswana and southern Africa), and the Bangweulu tsessebe in northeast Zambia. The latter is described as a new evolutionary species, D. superstes. This provisional analysis of the diversity of Damaliscus unequivocally distinguished two clades - the lunatus complex (comprising all south-central African tsessebes) from the korrigum complex (populations in east, west, and north Africa). These insights into morphological diversity of Damaliscus clearly endorses a revision for the genus, as errors weaken the time-honoured taxonomy. It is argued that the Evolutionary Species Concept (ESC) is superior to the Biological Species Concept (BSC) in characterizing the diversity of these antelopes precisely and accurately. A revised taxonomy has significant implications for the management of these antelopes.
National Studbook Four Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis).
Hrsg.: Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.TR.No2018/02.
Conclusions and Recommendations:
Four horned antelopes continue to face threats to their longterm survival in their natural habitats across their distribution range and are accordingly listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and in the Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of India. The threats faced by the species remain operational and the populations across their range are showing declining trend. Maintenance of demographically stable and genetically viable ex-situ populations is thus crucial for ensuring the continued survival of the species. The captive population in Indian zoos is characterized by a declining trend (λ = 0.0676). The population remains biased towards females with a limited number of proven breeders, though a large proportion belong to reproductively active age classes. It retains approximately 93% genetic diversity introduced by 16 founders. Values of population mean inbreeding and mean kinship indicate that specimens are unrelated to each other; however, the founder genome is poorly represented with the population containing genetic diversity of approximately only 8founder animals. Population simulations run using PMx software indicate that supplementation with one effective founder every two years and increasing the population growth rate to 1.0252and population size to 200 specimens in Indian institutions can ensure that the population remains viable over the next 100 years. The captive population of Four horned antelope in Indian zoos therefore requires intensive management efforts towards ensuring achievement of ex-situ conservation goals to address the following concerns:
- Additional housing facilities are requiredto ensure availability of adequate space for holding the additional number of specimens needed for maintaining a genetically viable and demographically stable population.
- The wild origin specimens that are currently present in the population should be assessed for relatedness using appropriate molecular genetics tools. The assessment so carried out should form the basis for deciding mate choice.
- Issues that limit optimum reproductive performance of the captive population viz. housing and husbandry practices and keeping of unpaired animals need to be addressed for ensuring effective population growth.
Bovids of the World Antelopes, Gazelles, Cattle, Goats, Sheep, and Relatives.
Foreword by Brent Huffman & Colin Groves.
664 Seiten, 337 farbige Abbildungen, 313 Verbreitungskarten.
Princeton Press. ISBN-13: 9781400880652
Bovids are a diverse group of ruminant mammals that have hooves and unbranched hollow horns. Bovids of the World is the first comprehensive field guide to cover all 279 bovid species, including antelopes, gazelles, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats. From the hartebeest of Africa and the takin of Asia to the muskox of North America, bovids are among the world's most spectacular animals and this stunningly illustrated and easy-to-use field guide is an ideal way to learn more about them.
The guide covers all species and subspecies of bovids described to date. It features more than 300 superb full-color plates depicting every kind of bovid, as well as detailed facing-page species accounts that describe key identification features, horn morphology, distribution, subspeciation, habitat, and conservation status in the wild. This book also shows where to observe each species and includes helpful distribution maps.
Suitable for anyone with an interest in natural history, Bovids of the World is a remarkable and attractive reference, showcasing the range and beauty of these important mammals.
- The first comprehensive field guide to all 279 bovid species
- 337 full-color plates, with more than 1,500 photographs
- Detailed species accounts describe key identification features, distribution, subspeciation, habitat, behavior, reproduction, and conservation status
- Fully updated and revised taxonomy, with common and scientific names
- Easy-to-read distribution maps