BOVIDS: A deep learning-based software package for pose estimation to evaluate nightly behavior and its application to common elands (Tragelaphus oryx) in zoos.

Ecology and Evolution 12 (3): e8701.


Only a few studies on the nocturnal behavior of African ungulates exist so far, with mostly small sample sizes. For a comprehensive understanding of nocturnal behavior, the data basis needs to be expanded. Results obtained by observing zoo animals can provide clues for the study of wild animals and furthermore contribute to a better understanding of animal welfare and better husbandry conditions in zoos. The current contribution reduces the lack of data in two ways. First, we present a stand-alone open-source software package based on deep learning techniques, named Behavioral Observations by Videos and Images using Deep-Learning Software (BOVIDS). It can be used to identify ungulates in their enclosure and to determine the three behavioral poses “Standing,” “Lying—head up,” and “Lying—head down” on 11,411 h of video material with an accuracy of 99.4%. Second, BOVIDS is used to conduct a case study on 25 common elands (Tragelaphus oryx) out of 5 EAZA zoos with a total of 822 nights, yielding the first detailed description of the nightly behavior of common elands. Our results indicate that age and sex are influencing factors on the nocturnal activity budget, the length of behavioral phases as well as the number of phases per behavioral state during the night while the keeping zoo has no significant influence. It is found that males spend more time in REM sleep posture than females while young animals spend more time in this position than adult ones. Finally, the results suggest a rhythm between the Standing and Lying phases among common elands that opens future research directions.


Freigegeben in G

Reproductive anatomy,manipulation of ovarian activity and non-surgical embryo recovery in suni (Neotragus moschatus zuluensis).

J. Reprod. Fert. 88: 521-532.


Marked disparity in the uterine horn dimensions and relative degrees of caruncle development in suni suggested that exclusive or predominant dextral implantation occurs in association with bilateral ovulatory activity. Daily urinary measurements of pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide revealed an oestrous cycle of ca. 21 days in length. Ovarian activity was controlled for synchronization of oestrus by using progestagen-impregnated intravaginal sponges and multiple ovulations were induced by using exogenous gonadotrophin therapy. An effective transcervical uterine catheterization technique was developed for the non-surgical collection of embryos. The efficiency of embryo recovery performed 5 days after sponge removal was 50-0%.


Freigegeben in L

The reproductive behaviour of the suni Neotragus moschatus zuluensis in captivity.

Koedoe 39 (1) 123-126.

Volltext (PDF)


Freigegeben in P

Population management as a tool in the recovery of the critically endangered Western Derby eland Taurotragus derbianus in Senegal, Africa.

Wildlife Biology, 17(3) : 299-310. DOI: 10.2981/10-019.


The critically endangered Western Derby elandTaurotragus derbianus derbianus, representing,200 wild individuals,undoubtedly needs a coordinated conservation programme. To promote the survival of this subspecies, a singleworldwide semi-captive population was established in Senegal in 2000, with one male and five female founderstransferred from the Niokolo Koba National Park. To determine a long-term conservation strategy, we useddemographic and pedigree data based on continuous monitoring of reproduction during 2000 - 2009 in breedingenclosures in the Bandia and Fathala Reserves, in conjunction with modelling software. In 2009, the semi-captivepopulation consisted of 54 living individuals (26 males and 28 females), managed using the minimal kinship strategy.The female breeding probability was 84%, annual calf and adult mortality rates were 5.09% and 3.27%, respectively,and the annual population growth rate was 1.36. As the population grew, the animals were progressively separated intofive herds within tworeserves. A pedigree analysis revealedan effective population size of 6.72 andan Ne/N ratio of 0.13.The population retained 77% of the gene diversity (GD). The founder genome equivalent (FGE¼2.21) was relativelylow due to the overrepresentation of one founder male. Although the mean level of inbreeding (F) reached 0.119, asignificant potential GD (92%) was still retained. In this article, we predict GD development in this population in thenext 100 years with the inclusion of new founders. If the whole wild population were included, we could maintain 90%of GD. As this option is not practically feasible, we present three options with the goal of maintaining 75% GD. Wehighly recommend capturing new founders from the remaining wild population to ensure the survival of the subspeciesat least in semi-captivity, which could allow possible reinforcement of the wild population or reintroduction in thefuture. The semi-captive population, if appropriately constituted and genetically managed, could play a considerablerole in Western Derby eland conservation.


Freigegeben in K
Dienstag, 16 Juni 2020 14:16

KENDALL, G. (ed., 2000)

AZA Antelope Husbandry Manual - Cephalophinae.

66 Seiten
San Diego Wild Animal Park


General Characteristics, Veterinary Care, Nutrition, Captive Management, Housing and Enclosure Requirements, Behavior and Social Organization, Reproduction and Ontogeny, Assisted Reproduction Techniques, Contraception, Hand Rearing, Role of Keeper in Animal Management, In Situ Programs, References, Acknowledgments, Bibliography

Volltext (PDF)


Freigegeben in K

Flagship but only locally: bongo Tragelaphus eurycerus taxonomic history and its effects on current conservation policy.

GAZELLA 44: 65-76.


A review of historical literature plus the examination of zoos and museum specimens and available photos from internet source revealed the hidden diversity of the bongo antelopes, presently Tragelaphus eurycerus. While the Kenya montane form isaaci has received most conservation support in recent years, the present review highlights the species status of the little-known Upper Guinean nominal taxon. Waiting for a through taxonomic revision of the whole complex especially in the central forest block, the Central-Eastern bongos are better considered as members of a distinct species Tragelaphus albovirgatus Du Chaillu, 1861, provisionally considered to include a number of ‘subspecies’. The conservation status of T. albovirgatus and especially of T. eurycerus need further investigations even considering that, excepted for the Kenyan taxon isaaci, their survival may depends exclusively on in situ conservation activities.

Volltext (PDF)


Freigegeben in G
Samstag, 29 Februar 2020 09:49

BRANDT, B. (2020)

Über die ersten Bongos in Paris.

BULETTE Berlin 7: 215-219.


Es wird über die Ersteinfuhr eines (Westlichen) Bongos in einen europäischen Zoologischen Garten berichtet, die 1927 durch die Menagerie des Jardin des Plantes, Paris, erfolgte. Ferner über die zweite Einfuhr eines Bongos nach Paris, der 1939 im Zoo de Vincennes gehalten wurde. Die Tiere werden fotografisch dokumentiert.


Freigegeben in B
Montag, 25 März 2019 09:29

ROSE, P. & ROBERT, R. (2013)

Evaluating the activity patterns and enclosure usage of a little-studied zoo species, the sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii).

Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 1 (1):14-19.


Ungulates can be underrepresented in zoo animal behaviour and welfare research, yet they comprise some of the most widely-kept captive species and as such, their lives within the zoo are worthy of closer investigation. Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii) are kept in numerous zoological collections globally yet current information on species-specific husbandry requirements and captive behaviour patterns appears limited. Many enclosures for ungulates can be uninspiring and generic; this study was designed to gain a better understanding of daily activity and enclosure use of a species that, in the wild, has a very particular habitat choice. Data were collect-ed at the former Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, Chard, UK on eight sitatunga to determine overall daily activity patterns and usage of all available areas of their exhibit. Instantaneous scan sampling of the whole herd during three periods each day (morning, midday and afternoon) allowed for changes in behaviour patterns to be assessed over time. The enclosure encompassed both biologically-relevant (long grasses, reeds and shallow water) and less relevant (open, short-grassed) areas; these were zoned according to features considered useable to the sitatunga and that could influence behaviour and time spent within that zone. Zone usage was analysed using a modified Spread of Participation Index (SPI) which indicated a significant prefer-ence for biologically-relevant spaces. Significantly enhanced behavioural repertoires occurred in the “natural” zones of the enclosure and three behaviours (standing, sitting/ruminating and eating) showed significant differences in performance between natural and artificial zones, and between time of day. Captive sitatunga display a daily rhythm in their activity, however comparison with wild data in the literature shows only few similarities in daytime activity budget and analysis reveals a significant difference between daily feeding patterns. Overall, enclosure design based on facets of natural ecology is important for the expression of a “wild-type” behaviour pattern in captive ungulates and sitatunga will actively choose more biologically-relevant areas of their exhibit when these are available. It is suggested that alterations to husbandry regime and management style of such specialised ungulates could help improve captive behavioural repertoires and enhance the display of such animals in the zoo.


Freigegeben in R
Dienstag, 19 März 2019 13:45

VIÉ, J.-C. (1996)

Reproductive biology of captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in Saudi Arabia.

Zoo Biology 15 (4): 371-381.<371::AID-ZOO2>3.0.CO;2-8


Reproductive data on captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were collected from June 1986 through April 1992 at the National Wildlife Research Center (Taif, Saudi Arabia). Oryx females are polyestrous. The estrous cycle averaged 22 days and mean gestation length was 260 ± 5.5 days (S.D). Sex ratio at birth was unbiased and mean weight was 6.5 ± 0.7 kg (S.D.), with no difference between sexes. Under captive breeding conditions, births occurred throughout the year. Females gave birth to a single calf at any time during the day and produced 1.03 young per year. Abortion rate was 3.6%. Mortality rate of young was 6.1% before weaning at 3 months of age. The interbirth interval averaged 295 ± 42 days (S.D.), with 53% lasting between 270 and 279 days. Females reached sexual maturity at the age of 13 months.



Freigegeben in V

Antelope Conservation ä From Diadnosis to Action.

Conservation Science and Practice 16: 1-376.

Wiley Blackwell / Zoological Society of London. ISBN: 978-1-118-40957-2.


Antelopes constitute a fundamental part of ecosystems throughout Africa and Asia where they act as habitat architects, dispersers of seeds, and prey for large carnivores. The fascication they hold in the human mind is evident from prehistoric rock paintings and ancient Egyptian art to today's wildlife documentaries and popularity in zoos. In recent years, however, the spectacular herds of the past have been decimated or extripated over wide areas in the wilds, and urgent conservation action is needed to preserve this world heritage for generations to come.

As the first book dedicated to antelope conservation, this volume sets out to diagnose the causes of the drastic declines in antelope biodiversity and on this basis identify the most effective points of action. In doing so, the book covers central issues in the current conservation debate, especially related to the management of overexploitation, habitat fragmentation, disease transmission, climate change, populations genetics, and reintroductions. The contributions are authored by world-leading experts in the field, and the book is a useful resource to conservation scientists and practitioners, researchers, and students in related disciplines as well as interested lay people.

Das Buch umfasst folgende Kapitel:

Our Antelope Heritage – Why the Fuss? 1

  1. Conservation Challenges Facing African Savanna Ecosystems 11
  2. Population Regulation and Climate Change: The Future of Africa’s Antelope 32
  3. Interspecific Resource Competition in Antelopes: Search for Evidence 51
  4. Importance of Antelope Bushmeat Consumption in African Wet and Moist Tropical Forests 78
  5. Opportunities and Pitfalls in Realising the Potential Contribution of Trophy Hunting to Antelope Conservation 92
  6. Antelope Diseases – the Good, the Bad and the Ugly 108
  7. Hands-on Approaches to Managing Antelopes and their Ecosystems: A South African Perspective 137
  8. DNA in the Conservation and Management of African Antelope 162
  9. Biological Conservation Founded on Landscape Genetics: The Case of the Endangered Mountain Nyala in the Southern Highlands of Ethiopia 172
  10. The Use of Camera-Traps to Monitor Forest Antelope Species 190
  11. Reintroduction as an Antelope Conservation Solution 217
  12. Desert Antelopes on the Brink: How Resilient is the Sahelo-Saharan Ecosystem? 253
  13. The Fall and Rise of the Scimitar-Horned Oryx: A Case Study of Ex-Situ Conservation and Reintroduction in Practice 280
  14. Two Decades of Saiga Antelope Research: What have we Learnt? 297
  15. Synthesis: Antelope Conservation – Realising the Potential 315

Appendix: IUCN Red List Status of Antelope Species April 2016 329



Freigegeben in B
Seite 1 von 4
© Peter Dollinger, Zoo Office Bern hyperworx