Dienstag, 12 Januar 2021 14:07

DENNIS, N., KNIGHT, M. & JOYCE, P. (1997)

The Kalahari: Survival in a Thirstland Wilderness.

168 Seiten, durchgehend farbig illustriert,
Struik Publishers, Cape Town. ISBN 10: 1868720195 ISBN 13: 9781868720194

Synopsis:

This work captures the essence of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park in South Africa, from the smallest insects to its largest inhabitants. Photographed in all seasons of the year, the varying moods of the Kalahari are portrayed. The text aims to provide an insight into the balance of nature and the intricacies of life and survival in this wilderness.

dennis-biblio

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Mittwoch, 02 Dezember 2020 13:23

GOMPPER, M. E. (2009)

Population ecology of the white‐nosed coati (Nasua narica) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

Journal of Zoology 241(3): 441-455
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1997.tb04836.x


Abstract:

The white‐nosed coati, Nasua narica, is a common Neotropical carnivore with a social structure of band‐living adult females and solitary adult males. A coati population on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, was studied over a four‐year period by mark‐recapture, radiotelemetry. and direct observation of habituated individuals. The population density was approximately 51.5 individuals/km2 and the sex ratio was 1:1. Band size varied from six to 26 individuals (mean = 15.3) with extensive fluctuation within and between years. Mean foraging group size was smaller (7.2 individuals) than population group size, and fluctuated with food availability, synchronous parturition, and the emigration of mature males. Mean home‐range size of six bands was 0.33 km2, and ranges of adjacent bands overlapped from 0–66%. One band fissioned during the study; however, the resulting bands did not disperse from the original home range. Seven adult males had a mean home‐range size of 0.37 km2, each extensively overlapping the home ranges of several other males. Observations of 10 adult males whose natal bands were known indicate that when males disperse they do not simultaneously leave the band's home range. Rather, their home ranges remain within or broadly overlapping those of their natal bands. This dispersal pattern is unusual within the order Carnivora.

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Diet of the Chilean Tinamou (Nothoprocta perdicaria) in central-south Chile.

ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL 17: 467–472.

Kurzmitteilung:

... We analysed the contents of crops and stomachs obtained from 79 birds captured in different agricultural areas, years, and seasons in the Ñuble Province, south central Chile. ... Diet consisted mainly of wild plant seeds. The consumption of animal material was scarce and consisted of one insect and crustacean species. During the summer, the seeds of the Poaceae family were most common ... The Chilean Tinamou in Ñuble appears to be essentially a granivorous species with invertebrates being consumed in a variable proportion depending of the season.

gonzalez-biblio

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The distribution and spread of the invasive alien common myna, Acridotheres tristis L. (Aves: Sturnidae), in southern Africa.

South African Journal of Science 103(11-12):465-473.

Abstract:

The common myna is an Asian starling that has become established in many parts of the world outside of its native range due to accidental or deliberate introductions by humans. The South African population of this species originated from captive birds that escaped in Durban in 1902. A century later, the common myna has become abundant throughout much of South Africa and is considered to pose a serious threat to indigenous biodiversity. Preliminary observations suggest that the common myna's distribution is closely tied to that of humans, but empirical evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. We have investigated the relationships between common myna distribution, human population size and land-transformation values at a quarter-degree resolution in South Africa. Common mynas were found more frequently than expected by chance in areas with greater human population numbers and land-transformation values. We also investigated the spatial relationship between the bird's range and the locations of South Africa's protected areas at the quarter-degree scale. These results indicate that, although there is some overlap, the common myna distribution is not closely tied to the spatial arrangement of protected areas. We discuss the original introduction, establishment and rate of spread of the common myna in South Africa and neighbouring countries and contrast the current distribution with that presented in The Atlas of Southern African Birds. We also discuss the factors that affect the common myna's success and the consequences that invasion by this species is likely to have, specifically in protected areas.

peacock-biblio

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Samstag, 03 Oktober 2020 10:04

INEICHEN, S. & RUCKSTUHL, M. (Hrsg., 2010)

Stadtfauna - 600 Tierarten der Stadt Zürich.

446 Seiten, ca. 600 Farbfotos und 600 Karten. Haupt Verlag, Bern. ISBN: 978-3-258-07561-7.

Verlagstext:

Städte beherbergen eine erstaunlich artenreiche Tierwelt. Die «Stadtfauna» zeigt rund 600 Arten, die in den letzten Jahren in der Stadt Zürich beobachtet werden konnten - vom Süßwasserschwamm bis zur Nordfledermaus. Gut untersuchte Tiergruppen wie Heuschrecken, Tagfalter, Fische, Reptilien und Vögel werden vollständig vorgestellt. Käfer, Flöhe, Spinnen und andere Verwandtschaftskreise sind durch eine Auswahl typischer oder besonderer Arten vertreten.

Die allesamt mit Farbfotos illustrierten, von Spezialisten verfassten Artporträts geben Auskunft über Lebensweise, Verbreitung und Gefährdung der Tiere, die städtische Gärten und Gebäude, Bahnareale und Blumenwiesen, Gewässer und Stadtwälder besiedeln.

Das hier vereinigte Wissen stellt einen einzigartigen Überblick über die Fauna einer Stadt dar, die in vielerlei Hinsicht mit der Tierwelt anderer Städte und Ortschaften im urbanisierten Mitteleuropa vergleichbar ist.

ineichen-biblio

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Samstag, 03 Oktober 2020 09:29

TAUCHER, A. & GEIGER, M. (2020)

Dachse in den Fussstapfen der Stadtfüchse.

Fauna Focus 58: 1-12. Herausgeber: Wildtier Schweiz, Zürich www.wildtier.ch

Verlagstext:

Siedlungsgebiete beherbergen nicht nur Millionen von Menschen, sondern auch eine erstaunliche Vielfalt an Tieren und Pflanzen, die in den unterschiedlichsten ökologischen Nischen einen Lebensraum finden. Fauna und Flora machen nicht Halt vor den Stadtgrenzen. Im Gegenteil, sie breiten sich entlang von Bahnlinien und Flüssen aus, erobern Brachen, Gärten und Friedhöfe. Die vielfältige Natur in Städten ist für die Lebensqualität der Menschen zentral. Jedoch werden viele städtische Wildtiere von uns Menschen kaum wahrgenommen, da sie eher nachts aktiv sind und den Kontakt mit den menschlichen Nachbarn meiden. Ein solch heimlicher Bewohner der Siedlungsgebiete ist der Dachs.

taucher-biblio

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Current and potential geographical distribution of Platymeris biguttatus (Linnaeus, 1767) with description of nymphs.

Zoological studies 54(9). DOI: 10.1186/s40555-014-0092-5

Abstract:

Background: The description of Platymeris biguttatus (Linnaeus 1767) nymphal instars as well as the prediction of the potentially suitable ecological niche was the main goal of this study. Our research was based on 258 specimens of P. biguttatus species of museum collections. A set of 23 environmental predictor variables covering Africa was used at ecological niche modeling - a method performed using the Maxent software to prepare potential distribution maps for this species.

Results: The results suggested the most suitable areas seen as potentially suitable ecological niche for P. biguttatus in Africa. A jackknife test showed that temperature seasonality and percentage of tree cover were among the most important environmental variables affecting the distribution of the species. The analysis of climate preferences shows that most of the potentially suitable niches for this species were located in the area of tropical savanna climate, with a small participation of tree vegetation.

Conclusions: P. biguttatus was only known to be widely distributed in the tropical part of continental Africa. Thanks to the ecological niche modeling methods and the museum data on the occurrence of the species, we introduced new information about potentially suitable ecological niches and the possible range of distribution.

chlond-biblio

 

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Sonntag, 23 August 2020 08:16

JONES, S. (1940

A Visitation of the Spotted Locust (Aularches miliaris L.) in Travancore.

Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 41 (3): 676-678.

Abstract:

Isolated examples of Aularches miliaris L., can normally be found in the plains and in the hilly districts of Travancore, but outbreaks are rare. One was reported about 18 years ago at Manimala, and in June 1939 serious damage was caused at Kalanjoor, in Central Travancore, by a swarm a quarter of a mile long and fifty yards wide, which completely defoliated a plantation of young teak and also attacked other trees, including coconut palms, mango, areca [Areca catechu], jak [Artocarpus integrifolia[Artocarpus integer]] and banana. The life-history of A. miliaris in Travancore is not known, and the details of it in Ceylon are quoted [cf. R.A.E., A 14 234]. For control, it is recommended to spray the young nymphs with soap solution, to dig up and destroy the egg-masses, and to collect the adults by hand.

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Samstag, 22 August 2020 10:34

SHERMAN, P. M. (2006)

Influence of land crabs Gecarcinus quadratus (Gecarcinidae) on distributions of organic carbon and roots in a Costa Rican rain forest.

Rev. Biol. Trop. (Int. J. Trop. Biol. ISSN-0034-7744) 54(1): 149-161, March 2006.

Abstract:

In  Costa  Rica’s  Corcovado  National  Park,  the  fossorial  land  crab,  Gecarcinus  quadratus (Gecarcinidae), densely populates (1- 6 m²) a region of forest extending from the Park’s Pacific coastline inland to ca. 600 m. Throughout this coastal forest (‘crabzone’), crabs selectively forage for fallen leaves and relocate them to subterranean burrow chambers. Comparisons between surface soils (0 - 15 cm) sampled from the crab-zone and forest lying immediately inland that is naturally devoid of crabs (‘crabless zone’) suggest that crabzone top soils contained less organic carbon and fewer fine and very fine roots. In contrast, soils sampled from 70 - 100 cm depths in the crabzone contained twice the carbon of the crabless zone during the dry season but similar values during the wet season. Two years of experimental crab exclusion from 25 m2 replicates established in the crabzone resulted in 16% more organic carbon content in surface soils relative to baseline conditions (n.s.) and 22% more carbon than final control values (P < 0.05). Excavations of burrow chambers, with an average (± SD) depth of 48 ± 12 cm, indicated localized, subterranean pockets of elevated (+ 60 %) organic carbon and increased densities of fine and very fine roots relative to same-depth samples from the crabzone unassociated with burrows chambers.

sherman-biblio

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Freitag, 21 August 2020 08:46

BURLA, J., PABST, B. & STAHEL, W. (1976)

Vorkommen von Astropecten aranciacus (Asteroidea, Echinodermata) in Abhängigkeit von Umweltbedingungen.

Environmental conditions affecting the occurrence of Astropecten aranciacus (Asteroidea, Echinodermata).

Helgoländer wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 28: 167–182

Zusammenfassung:

  1. Astropecten aranciacus L. ist die größte von sechs Arten der Gattung, die im Mittelmeer nachgewiesen sind. Dieser Seestern lebt auf Sedimentböden; die obere Grenze des Vorkommens findet sich auf etwa drei Meter Tiefe.
  2. Auf 70 Stichprobenfeldern von je 25 m2 Fläche wurde die Individuenzahl von A. aranciacus zusammen mit biotischen und abiotischen Bedingungen registriert. Das Untersuchungsgebiet lag zwischen 3 und 10 m Tiefe.
  3. Die statistische Datenauswertung ergab, daß die Abundanz von A. aranciacus mit zunehmender Tiefe und steigendem mittlerem Sandkorndurchmesser zunimmt. Von den biotischen Faktoren war die Anzahl Molluskenarten positiv, die Anzahl Echinocardien negativ mit der Abundanz von A. aranciacus korreliert.
  4. Die Bestandesdichte von A. aranciacus schwankte in dem heterogenen, mosaikartig gegliederten Biotop zwischen 0 und 12 Individuen je 100 m2. Im Mittel entfielen auf 100 m² 4 Seesterne. Der Radius R der Tiere variierte zwischen 7 und 15 cm.
  5. Die Makro-Infauna des Gebiets fiel durch geringe Abundanz auf. Bei den Mollusken betrug die durchschnittliche Bestandesdichte 36 Tiere pro m2. Dagegen war die Arten-Diversität groß: In Infaunenproben von gesamthaft 17,5 m2 Fläche fanden sich 37 Molluskenarten.

burla-biblio
    

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