Masoala - Das Auge des Waldes - Eine Überlebensstrategie für den Regenwald in Madagaskar.
144 Seiten mit zahlreichen Farbfotos von Priska Ketterer
Th. Gut Verlag, Stäfa. ISBN13: 978-3-85717-155-0
Madagaskar ist einmalig bezüglich seiner Fauna und Flora, die in den Regenwäldern von Masoala ihren Höhepunkt findet. 1990 erliess die Regierung Madagaskars einen Aktionsplan zur Erhaltung der Umwelt. Um die Zerstörung dieses Naturschutzgebietes zu verhindern, entschlossen sich der Zoo Zürich sowie die Wildlife Conservation Society und ihre Partner, mit dem madagassischen Volk zusammen zu arbeiten. Die 2003 eingeweihte Masoalahalle im Zürcher Zoo ist ein Schaufenster für Madagaskar in Europa. Die beispielhafte Anlage basiert auf einem modernen Zoo-Naturschutzkonzept und ist Grundlage für eine enge Zusammenarbeit mit einem Naturschutzprojekt in der Wildnis. Mit dem Masoala Regenwald ist nicht nur eine moderne Zooanlage entstanden, sondern auch eine einmalige Sehenswürdigkeit, die weit über die Landesgrenzen hinaus auf Interesse stößt.
Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments.
PLoS ONE 9(9): e107698. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107698
The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.
Rehwildprojekt Borgerhau: Untersuchungen zur Ökologie einer freilebenden Rehwildpopulation.
Wildforschung in Baden-Württemberg Band 5.
143 Seiten. Hrsg: Staatlichen Lehr-und Versuchsanstalt AulendorfWildforschungsstelle
Kitzrate und frühe Kitzsterblichkeit(Zitat aus Zusammenfassung)
Pro im Herbst vorhandener adulter Geiß wurden im Mittel 1,44 Kitze beobachtet. Diese Kitzrate schwankte witterungsbedingt in den einzelnen Jahren zwischen 0,93 und 1,63. Auf den gesamten Untersuchungszeitraum bezogen wurden am 1. September 14% der Geißen ohne Kitz festgestellt, 31% hatten ein Kitz, 52% zwei Kitze und 3% drei Kitze. Die frühe Kitzsterblichkeit (Geburt bis 1. September) wurde nach zwei Methoden eingeschätzt (nach ergleich zwischen potentieller und realisierter Kitzrate sowie nach der Wiederbeobachtungsrate markierter Kitze). Es ergaben sich die Werte 24% bzw. 22% als Mittel für den Untersuchungszeitraum. Markierte Kitze unterlagen keiner erhöhten Sterblichkeit.
L'écologie de la mone de Campbell (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) en Côte d'Ivoire.
La Terre et la Vie 1969/2: 135-163.
Lowe's guenon (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) is still one of the commonest monkeys of the Ivory Coast. It is found in all forest types, from old mature rain forest to secondary growth. Although these monkeys spend most of their time in the middle and lower layers of the forest, they occasionally visit the canopy or descend to the ground. The various types of locomotion are described and illustrated. Most of the detailed information obtained on the ecology and behaviour of the Lowe's guenon is based upon observations made from 1967 to 1969 on a wild troop living on the grounds of the Swiss Research Center, at Adiopodoumé. The history of this group has been recorded since 1964. Comparative observations were made on various wild troops in western Ivory Coast, and on 2 free ranging pets at the Lamto field station in 1967. The home range of the Adiopodoumé troop is small, covering about 3 hectares. The monkeys use the same sleeping trees for long pcriods of time and regularly visit fruit trees and places where they are given bananas. There is no rigid daily time schedule, and most of the home range is visited every day. The wild troop does not allow adult foreign conspecifics to settle on its territory, but a one year old male infant was accepted in February 1969. The staple food of the Lowe's guenon consists of fruits, flowers and leaves. Thirty two species of food plants are recorded. The monkeys are also very fond of insects, which they activcly hunt both in trces and on the ground. Insect hunting is selective, some unpalatable species being deliberately rejected. Water is licked from leaves and branches, or scooped out of tree holes. Breeding is seasonal, all infants bcing born between midNovember and mid-January, at the very end of the long rains and the beginning of the dry season. Thus the females appear ta conceive during the annual peak in rainfall and during the annual decline in temperature. The social structure of the troop is described. Although it includes more males than females, the Adiopodoumé troop is a «one male group», centered around the adult male. He acts as a leader and spends a great deal of time watching. The «warning bark» is his prerogative. Unlike mature females who readily act as «aunts», the adult male does not show interest in infants, even newborn ones, and juveniles. However he allows them to play close to him. Subadult males are bolder and more inquisitive than any other troop member. Juveniles and infants are very active players. No overt and rigid social hierarchy exists within the troop, although in certain circumstances younger individuals give way ta older ones. Early in 1969 a splitting of the group was observed. It took place progressively and quietly. In February, two males, 4 and 3 years old, and one 4 year old female, began to separatc from the rest of the troop during the day, returning to the traditional sleeping trees at night. They left the troop's home-range for good around the lst of March. Lowe's guenon often associates with other species of Cercopithecus (C. petaurista mainly) and Colobines (Colobus polykomos and C. badius). These mixed troops are more than chance aggregations of different species on the same food trees. In Lamto, the two free ranging male Cercopithecus campbelli lowei reacted immediately to the distress calls of a young female C. petaurista living with them, and would come to her rescue if she was in danger. Interactions with other Vertebrates are described. Reactions to soaring birds of prey are not stereotyped: in Adiopodoumé, the monkeys were not afraid of the common black kites, whereas an approaching buzzard sent them «diving» into thick foliage. Play interactions were observed with roosting hornbills, and even a pet mongoose. Breeding periodicity, which permits an eventual use of seasonal food surpluses, and the ability to descend to the ground and cross open spaces, might « pre-adapt » this forest monkey to life in wooded savannas. These two characteristics certainlv help one to understand the wide range of Lowe's guenon and its ability to live in the forest-savanna boundary.
Habitat preference of the Preuss's guenon (Cercopithecus preussi), on Bioko island, Equatorial Guinea.
Human Evolution: 19, Artikelnummer: 239 (2004)
The Press's guenon (Cercopithecus preussi) is considered to be one of the most threatened African primates. There is little information on the ecology and status of this primate on Bioko island, where it is found in the form of an endemic subspecies. The Press's, guenon shows preference for the Schefflera forest and the mountain habitat on Bioko island. As on the mainland they also have semitterrestrial habits and are found usually at the understorey of the forest. Competitive exclusion between this guenon and other guenon species could be an explanation of these ecological preferences. Habitat use and vertical stratification of the activity in the forest canopy seem to reduce competition with other sympatric primate species that inhabit on the island. Habitat destruction, and isolation in a reduced habitat, show to be the major threats for the survival of this primate on Bioko island.
Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: I. Interspecific patterns.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 112 (3): 411-431
Niche separation was documented in a year‐long study of Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Feeding trees were measured, and diet, forest height, and forest site were recorded at 5‐min time points on focal animals. For time point data, multivariate and bivariate analysis of frequencies was employed to examine how niche dimensions vary between species according to sex, season, and reproductive stage. V. v. rubra feeds in larger trees than E. f. albifrons. V. v. rubra has a diet consisting mainly of fruit, whereas E. f. albifrons has a more varied diet. V. v. rubra ranges mainly above 15 m in tree crowns, whereas E. f. albifrons ranges mainly below 15 m in a wide array of forest sites. Both species are largely frugivorous, but they harvest fruit in different‐sized trees, in different quantities, and in different forest strata. Niche partitioning varies in tandem with seasonal shifts in climate and food availability and with reproductive stages. Seasonal shifts in forest site and forest height use are largely attributed to species‐specific tactics for behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance. The diet of E. f. albifrons is diverse whether examined by season or reproductive stage. However, females of both species diversify their diets with more low‐fiber protein than males during gestation, lactation, and the hot seasons. This pattern is most pronounced for V. v. rubra females and may be directly attributed to high energetic investment in reproduction. These results suggest that niche partitioning may be driven more by the energetic requirements of reproductive females than males.
Biogeographical and Topographical Variation in the Prey of the Black Eagle in the Cape Province, South Africa.
Ostrich 62: 59-72.
Prey remains collected at or near Black Eagle Aquila verreauxii nest sites in the Cape Province, South Africa, were analysed according to frequency of occurrence of prey species in the samples. A total of 5748 prey individuals, collected from 73 sites, was analysed according to three biome groups and four nest site types. The Rock Hyrax Procavia capensis is the dominant prey species, but the eagles' diet spectrum varies according to its availability. Indices of species richness and diversity of the prey are inversely correlated with the proportion of the prey contributed by P. capensis, which in turn is determined by topography and vegetation. Biome has a greater influence on the indices than has nest site type. The age structure of the P. capensis prey remains closely reflects the juvenile:sub-adult:adult ratios in the biomes and at the nest site types. Medium-sized (approx. 1-4,5 kg) prey is usually taken. Juvenile domestic small-stock (lambs and goat kids) comprised only 3,4% of the overall total.
Photographic evidence of fire-induced shifts from dwarf-shrub- to grass-dominated vegetation in Nama-Karoo.
South African Journal of Botany 101 (November 2015): 148-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2015.06.002
The Nama-Karoo is a semi-arid inland biome in South Africa dominated by dwarf shrubs with grasses, shrubs, geophytes and herbs at varying levels of abundance. The position of the Nama-Karoo/grassland boundary is determined in part by rainfall amount, and in recent years there has been an increase in grassiness, correlated with good rains. This has allowed wildfires, an unusual occurrence, to burn at several sites in the central and eastern regions of the biome. The general effect of fire has been to convert dwarf shrublands to grassland with the extirpation of several nonsprouters species. A collection of photographs describes this effect. It is anticipated that these nonsprouters will recolonise by seed over time, but could be eliminated if fire frequency is high enough to eliminate their seedbank. It is predicted that if grassy conditions persist in the Nama-Karoo, then fire will be an important factor that shapes the Nama-Karoo/grassland boundary.
Inland salt waters of southern Africa.
Hydrobiologia 210, Artikeln Nr.: 75. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00014324
Inland salt lakes are widely distributed in southern Africa: they are particularly common in South Africa, but many occur in Namibia and Botswana. All are shallow, and most are ephemeral with salinities that are not very high (mostly < 50 g l−1). Fringing zones of halophytes or submerged macrophytes are neither well-developed nor taxonomically diverse. The Cyanobacteria, especially Nodularia spumigena, often dominate the phytoplankton. The fauna of the Makgadikgadi area (northeast Botswana) is diverse and is similar to that of East African salt lakes. The aquatic fauna of salt water south of the Makgadikgadi Basin, on the other hand, is extremely depauperate, has no well-defined assemblage confined to saline waters, and appears mostly to comprise tolerant freshwater forms. Lovenula falcifera and Metadiaptomus transvaalensis (diaptomid copepods), Moina micrura (Cladocera) and Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) are frequently encountered zooplankton species, a few species of insects (Anisops sp., beetles, chironomids and ephydrids) are the principal non-planktonic macroinvertebrates. Artemia ‘salina’ is occasionally present, but may be an introduced form. The avifauna, in contrast to the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna, is rich, with the greater and lesser flamingo often common.
Distribution and habitat choice of Capeclawless otters, Aonyx capensis, in South Africa.
African Journal of Wildlife Research 37 (Apr 2007): 61-70. DOI: 10.3957/0379-4369-37.1.61
Cape clawless otters, Aonyx capensis, are widely distributed in South Africa, as elsewhere on the continent. They occur in a wide variety of environments and most aquatic habitats, from freshwater lakes to the marine littoral,and even in episodic rivers in arid areas, provided freshwater sources are adequate and sufficient food is available. This animal is not much affected by turbid water as it locates prey by touch, and usually forages close to shores or banks. Evidence of presence in given localities and habitats, distributed over a large area of the Northern, Western, and Eastern Cape provinces, was deduced from signs (faecal deposits or distinctive tracks) on land. Accepting the inherent pitfalls of this approach we nevertheless feel using it is acceptable for a first approximation of habitat preferences over a large geographical area. Results point to areas with dense reed beds and a rocky substrate on banks being used most intensively, probably on account of a localized high food biomass.