SPINAGE, C. A. (2012)

Zoonoses Animal and Human Diseases Endo and Ectoparasites Mainly Mammal I.

African Ecology. 2012 : 1101–1149. Published online 2011 Aug 12. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-22872-8_23 .


The definition of a zoonosis is that it must affect man but the term is used often outside of medical terminology of animal diseases where man is not involved. Zoonoses are diseases naturally transmitted between animals and man and comprise in total about 80% of all described human infections. Attempts have been made to define different classes of zoonoses according to the man-animal relationship but generally this does not seem to have been accepted. Elton in 1927 stressed the field of wild animal pathology was still virtually untouched, and in 1968 McDiarmid reiterated the view that it remained one of the most neglected aspects of animal ecology. There is now an extensive literature but it is rarely incorporated into ecological texts although disease is often the driving force in population dynamics. The primary driver of infectious disease dynamics is transmission between individuals, yet in most important respects remarkably little is known about the subject (Craft et al. 2008, Haydon 2008). Occasionally, under high population densities, an organism may infect a host outside of its normal range with highly pathogenic effect in its adventitious host.


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