Conservation Status of the “Piracanjuba” Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1850) (Characiformes, Bryconidae): Basis for Management Programs.
Revista Biodiversidade Brasileira – BioBrasil, 7(1): 18-33,
The excessive exploitation of freshwater resources has been caused by many impacts on natural populations, especially on fish. Different factors related to pollution, overfishing, introduction of exotic species, construction of dams, and destruction of riparian vegetation can cause changes on the current populations and interfere with their equilibrium. In this context, Brycon orbignyanus, popularly known as “piracanjuba”, is an endangered fish species affected by overfishing and environmental degradation. The quality of the meat and its aggressive behavior in the practice of sport and professional fishing, occurring concomitantly to continuous changes in the habitat, has resulted in the fast depletion of natural stocks and resulted in its addition to the list of endangered Brazilian fish species. The species has its distribution along the La Plata River basin, which has in its upper parts highly impacted by demographic occupation, dam constructions, and agricultural farm activities in marginal areas. Habitat changes lead the wild groups of this species to shift to less affected regions, being presently restricted to a few far rivers and small tributaries that remain in preserved environmental conditions. In order to obtain a better view of the real situation of B. orbignyanus populations, the aim of this work is the development of effective management programs for the conservation of this species. The article brings together information available in the literature and provides biological and population information about its current geographic distribution, the main threats to the equilibrium in the changing environments of occurrence, the genetic characteristics of populations, and the prospects for use in conservation programs.