Natural spawning, early development and first feeding of the semicircle angelfish [Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier, 1831)] in captivity.
Aquaculture Research 40 (9): 1019-1030. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02192.x
Successful natural spawning of Pomacanthus semicirculatus in captivity from 11 September to 18 October, 2006 is described for the first time. Each female laid an average of 230 000 ( sic ?!) eggs during the spawning period. Fertilized eggs were spherical, transparent and buoyant and had a mean diameter of 0.61 ± 0.03 mm (mean ± SD). Embryonic development lasted 18–21 h at 28.5 °C. Newly hatched larvae were 1.35 ± 0.02 mm in total length (TL) with 27 (12+15) myomeres and had an oil globule in the ventroposterior area of the yolk sac. Larvae completed yolk absorption within 3 days post hatching at 2.37 ± 0.05 mm TL. Larvae were fed either 100% microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp.), 100% s‐type rotifers (Brachionus rotundiformis), 100% dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax sp.) or different combinations of the three (50%:50%:0%, 30%:35%:35%) to determine the effect of live feed on the survival rate. The survival was significantly (P<0.001) better in larvae fed a combination of diets (30%: 35%: 35%) than others. These results indicate that P. semicirculatus is a potential species for captive‐breeding programmes and the use of a combination of diets (microalgae plus s‐type rotifers and dinoflagellates) may be a suitable first food for fish larvae.