International Introductions of Inland Aquatic Species.
FAO, Rom. M-44, Gedruckte Version ISBN 92-5-102664-5.
Large scale introductions of fish species into areas outside their native range is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Some transfers of fish may be considered ancient, in that they date from the middle ages in Europe but the majority of such movements date from the end of the last century. The detrimental effects of some introductions soon became apparent, but until recently were insufficient to cause widespread concern. However, with the development and spread of aqua-culture and an increasing public awareness of the environment fears of the impacts of introductions of fish species have grown. This lead the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) to form a Working Group on the introduction and Transfer of Marine Organisms which formulated a Code of Practice which was adopted by ICES in 1973. The International Consultation on Fishery Resources Allocation (Vichy, France, 1980) and the Eleventh Session of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC) held during 1980 both recommended that the procedures for introducing fish species into freshwaters be reviewed. As a result EIFAC adopted a Code of Practice based on the ICES model at its Fourteenth Session (Bordeaux, France, 1987). All other FAO Regional Fishery Bodies dealing with inland waters have also expressed their concern about introductions at their sessions and are currently investigating the relevance of the ICES/EIFAC Code to their own situations.